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What are solar panels?

What are solar panels?

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Solar panels are one of the most important components of the solar system, as they convert the rays falling on them into electrical energy that can be used. So what are these solar panels? What is it working principle?

Photovoltaic Cell

 Solar panels are composed of a dark-colored panel that absorbs the photons “energy carriers” falling on it from the sun’s rays until it directly converts the light energy into DC electrical energy, In principle, it relies on materials classified as semiconductors such as silicon, germanium, and others, and it also produces electrical energy from a clean and environmentally friendly source

: Solar panels manufacturing mechanism

Solar panels are mainly made of silicon, and the process of manufacturing solar panels begins with ultra-pure silicon, after which this silicon is heated to the melting point, and the boron element is added to it to form a positive semiconductor that carries the positive charge, and then it is formed into blocks using Casting or hammering Then these blocks are cut into thin slices using fine wire cutters, and then these solar panels are cleaned and placed in phosphorus diffusion furnaces, where the phosphorus material is scattered on one of the surfaces of the chips to form a layer of negative semiconductors

And these wafers are sprayed with many layers of chemicals to reduce the reflectivity of sunlight on the solar panels, and some manufacturers before that made the surface of the wafer rougher in order to reduce reflection and increase the area on which the rays fall, and electrical conductors and wires are printed on the upper negative part of the wafer and The back of the foil is painted with aluminum; To increase the durability of the solar panels, then the wafers are tested, and they are assembled in the form of solar panels, and special glass layers are placed to protect the wafers and reduce the reflection rate

How solar panels work؟

The sun’s solar panels consist of semiconductors, as when the sunlight falls, its electrons are liberated and headed toward the electrical conductor on the other side of the solar panels, meaning that when the solar panels are exposed to sunlight, the photons load their energy to the electrons in the negative electrode of the silicon, which leads To ionize it, that is, to liberate it by breaking the atomic bond of the material, where the electrons move between the electrodes, creating a continuous electrical current, and thus the electric current runs in the solar panels to reach the electrical load, which may be an electric lamp to operate it with continuous effort, and then exploit this current in many fields

Types of solar panels

Monocrystalline solar panel

The monocrystalline solar panels can be distinguished by their symmetrical appearance, which indicates the purity of silicon crystals and their dark blue-ish color. The monocrystalline solar panels are silicon alloys that have been cut into slices, and you can see that the edges of the solar panels are not adjacent, which gives the monocrystalline solar panels their distinctive appearance. These Solar panels are the most expensive types, as they are made of pure silicon crystal, and they give the highest efficiency of 15-19%, which reaches 25%, and this high efficiency reduces the space required to implement projects. However, its efficiency is affected by temperatures more than polycrystalline solar panels and according to their thermal coefficient values, and its lifespan is large and comes with a guarantee of 25 years or more

Polycrystalline solar panel

Polycrystalline solar panels and difference between them and mono solar panels is very clear in terms of shape, where the solar panels are compact squares, and it is characterized by a slight decrease in price compared to mono solar panels, and their efficiency is less than mono solar panels, as it ranges between (5.17-13 .%), but its effect on temperature is less than that of monocultures, Its life span is also large and comes. with a warranty of 25 years or more

Amorphous thin film solar panels

This type of solar panel is thin and streamlined and takes the shape of the surface on which it is installed. One of its most important features is that it is light in weight and flexible, as it can be easily bent and thus can be shaped in different shapes, and the heat and shade affect it to the same degree as the previous solar panels, that is, it They operate at higher temperatures with the same efficiency, and usually consist of one rigid bar per solar panel. Among its disadvantages is that it is less efficient than its counterparts for the same area of other types of solar panels and therefore less expensive and its efficiency may not exceed 10%. With scientific development, this efficiency will match the efficiency of traditional solar panels in the near future, and its lifespan is less than its mono counterpart and multiplayer

Solar panels and their installation

  It is known that the solar cell produces on its two ends a voltage difference of (5.0-6.0) volts as a maximum if it is exposed to appropriate sunlight, and it is certain that the implementation of applications on the ground requires obtaining a value greater than the voltage in order for our system to be usable, The solution is to connect enough olfactory cells together so that the total output voltage is adequate to power the required continuous load. And the assembly of these cells together forms a photovoltaic panel called a Module or Panel which gives sufficient continuous voltage and may be suitable for operating some different electrical loads that operate with continuous voltages DC 

The solar panels consist of many layers, the most important of which is a series of cells that are connected according to the required capacity of the panel and are usually 60 or 72 cells, noting that their final ends are assembled in a special assembly solar panel for each solar panel, then the solar panels are surrounded by two layers of ( EVA: Ethylene Vinyl Acetate, often installed inside an aluminum frame and from the front side covered with glass to protect the solar panels mechanically with a very high light permitting, and from the back side there is often a layer to protect the solar panels from the bottom, either made of glass or paper Or the Tedlar, and the back layer must bear a light color so as not to absorb and preserve heat, which in turn is an enemy to the efficiency of the solar panel

A number of solar cells are assembled to form a single complex called a solar panel (Module/ Panel). In contrast, the group of solar panels that are connected in series is called a bar/chain or String row. to be an Array solar array

Atlas Support & Service has distinguished practical experiences in the services of inspection, processing, and testing of solar panels, starting from the stage of manufacturing solar panels and ending with installation and maintenance through a team of engineers and technicians with high experience using the latest inspection equipment and various tests. International accreditation for solar panels such as ISO / IEC

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