خلايا شمسية

13 May, 2023

What are solar panels?

Solar panels are one of the most important components of the solar system, as they convert the rays falling on them into electrical energy that can be used. What are these solar panels? What is their working principle?

Photovoltaic Cell:

 Solar panels are composed of a dark-colored panel that absorbs the photons as “energy carriers”. They fall on them from the sun’s rays until they directly convert light into DC electrical energy. In principle, they rely on materials classified as semiconductors, such as silicon, germanium, and others. They also produce electrical energy from a clean and environmentally friendly source.

Solar panels manufacturing mechanism:

Solar panels are mainly made of silicon. The process of manufacturing solar panels begins with ultra-pure silicon, after which this silicon is heated to the melting point. The boron element is added to form a positive semiconductor that carries the positive charge. Then it is formed into blocks using Casting or hammering. Then these blocks are cut into thin slices using fine wire cutters. Then these solar panels are cleaned and placed in phosphorus diffusion furnaces, where the phosphorus material is scattered on one of the surfaces of the chips to form a layer of negative semiconductors.

These wafers are sprayed with chemical layers to reduce sunlight’s reflectivity on the solar panels. Some manufacturers before that made the wafer surface rougher in order to reduce reflection and increase the area on which the rays fall. Electrical conductors and wires are printed on the upper negative part of the wafer. Also, the back of the foil is painted with aluminum, mainly to increase the durability of the solar panels. Then, the wafers are tested and assembled in solar panels. Special glass layers are placed to protect the wafers and reduce the reflection rate.

How solar panels work 

The sun’s solar panels consist of semiconductors. When the sunlight falls, its electrons are liberated and headed toward the electrical conductor on the other side of the solar panels. It means that when the solar panels are exposed to sunlight, the photons load their energy to the electrons in the negative electrode of the silicon. Then, that will lead to ionizing and liberating it by breaking the atomic bond of the material, where the electrons move between the electrodes, creating a continuous electrical current. Thus the electric current runs in the solar panels to reach the electrical load. This load may be an electric lamp to be operated with constant effort, then exploit this current in many fields.

Types of solar panels

Monocrystalline solar panel

The monocrystalline solar panels can be distinguished by their symmetrical appearance, indicating silicon crystals’ purity and their dark blue-ish color. The monocrystalline solar panels are silicon alloys that have been cut into slices. You can see that the edges of the solar panels are not adjacent, which gives the monocrystalline solar panels their distinctive appearance. These Solar panel types are the most expensive, as they are made of pure silicon crystal. They also provide the highest efficiency of 15-19%, which reaches 25%, and this high efficiency reduces the space required to implement projects. However, its efficiency is affected by temperatures more than polycrystalline solar panels and according to their thermal coefficient values. Its lifespan is long, with a guarantee of 25 years or mo

Polycrystalline solar panel:

 The difference between Polycrystalline solar panels and mono solar panels is obvious in shape, where the solar panels are compact squares. They are characterized by a slight decrease in price compared to mono solar panels. Also, their efficiency is less than mono solar panels, ranging between (5.17-13.%). Still, their effect on temperature is less than that of monocultures. Their life span is also long, with a warranty of 25 years or more.

Amorphous thin film solar panels

This type of solar panel is thin and streamlined and takes the shape of the surface on which it is installed. One of its most important features is that it is light in weight and flexible, as it can be easily bent and shaped differently. The heat and shade affect it to the same degree as the previous solar panels. It works at higher temperatures with the same efficiency and usually consists of one rigid bar per solar panel. Among its disadvantages is that it is less efficient than its counterparts for the same area of other types of solar panels. Therefore it is less expensive, and its efficiency may be at most 10%. With scientific development, this efficiency will soon match traditional solar panels’ efficiency since its lifespan is less than its mono counterpart and multiplayer.

Solar panels and their installation

  It is known that the solar cell produces on its two ends a voltage difference of (5.0-6.0) volts as a maximum if it is exposed to appropriate sunlight. Implementing applications on the ground certainly requires obtaining a value greater than the voltage for our system to be usable. The solution is to connect enough olfactory cells together so that the total output voltage is adequate to power the required continuous load. The assembly of these cells forms a photovoltaic panel called a Module or Panel. It gives sufficient constant and suitable voltage for operating different electrical loads that work with continuous voltages DC.

Solar panels consist of many layers, the most important of which is a series of cells connected according to the required capacity of the panel. It is usually 60 or 72 cells, noting that their final ends are assembled in a special assembly solar panel for each solar panel. Then the solar panels are surrounded by two layers of ( EVA: Ethylene Vinyl Acetate, often installed inside an aluminum frame. The front side must be covered with glass to protect the solar panels mechanically, with very high light permitting. Also, the back side is often covered by a layer to protect the solar panels, either made of glass or paper, Or Tedlar. The back layer must bear a light color so as not to absorb and preserve heat, which is an enemy to the efficiency of the solar panel.

A number of solar cells are assembled to form a single complex called a solar panel (Module/ Panel). In contrast, the series of solar panels connected is called a bar/chain or String row to be an Array solar array.

Atlas Support & Service has distinguished practical experiences in the services of inspection, processing and testing of solar panels, starting from the stage of manufacturing solar panels and ending with installation and maintenance through a team of engineers and technicians with high experience using the latest inspection equipment and various tests. Atlas also provides International accreditation for solar panels such as ISO / IEC.

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